Patient Education

To help you understand and navigate through your orthopedic health decisions, we have created a patient education section. Please select from one of the categories below to learn more about your condition or procedure.
Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the narrowing of spaces within the spine, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves. It most commonly occurs in the neck (cervical stenosis) and lower back (lumbar stenosis). The condition can cause pain, numbness, and muscle weakness and may require treatment ranging from conservative therapies to surgery, depending on severity.

Common Symptoms

  • Pain: Can occur in the neck, back, or legs. Often worsens with standing or walking and improves with sitting or leaning forward.
  • Numbness and Tingling: Typically felt in the extremities (arms and hands for cervical stenosis, legs and feet for lumbar stenosis).
  • Weakness: Muscle weakness in the arms, legs, or both.
  • Balance Problems: Difficulty maintaining balance, often leading to frequent falls.
  • Bladder or Bowel Dysfunction: In severe cases, loss of control over bladder or bowel function.
  • Cramping: Muscle cramps, especially in the legs.


  • Degenerative Changes: Age-related changes such as osteoarthritis and disc degeneration.
  • Herniated Discs: Discs that bulge out of place can compress the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Thickened Ligaments: Ligaments in the spine can thicken and become stiff, pressing on the spinal cord.
  • Bone Spurs: Overgrowth of bone can narrow the space for the spinal cord and nerves.
  • Spinal Injuries: Fractures or dislocations of the spine.
  • Congenital Conditions: Some people are born with a naturally narrow spinal canal.


  • Detailed history and physical exam to assess symptoms and neurological function.
  • MRI: Preferred method to visualize the spinal cord, nerves, and soft tissues.
  • CT Scan: Detailed images of the spinal bones and any bone spurs.
  • X-rays: To identify bone abnormalities and alignment issues.
  • Assess electrical activity of muscles and nerve function.

Non-Surgical Treatment


  • Pain Relievers: NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen) or acetaminophen for pain management.
  • Muscle Relaxants: To reduce muscle spasms.
  • Steroid Injections: Corticosteroid injections to reduce inflammation and pain.

Physical Therapy:

  • Exercises to improve strength, flexibility, and balance.
  • Techniques to enhance posture and ergonomics.

Activity Modification:

  • Avoiding activities that exacerbate symptoms and incorporating regular low-impact exercises like swimming or cycling.

Surgical Treatments

Surgery is considered if conservative treatments fail or if there is significant neurological impairment.

Decompression Surgery:

  • Laminectomy: Removal of part of the vertebra (lamina) to create more space for the spinal cord and nerves.
  • Foraminotomy: Enlargement of the foramina (the openings through which nerve roots exit the spine) to relieve nerve compression.
  • Discectomy: Removal of a herniated disc pressing on the spinal cord or nerves.

Spinal Fusion:

  • Often performed in conjunction with decompression to stabilize the spine.
  • Involves fusing two or more vertebrae together using bone grafts, rods, and screws.

Interspinous Process Devices:

  • Implants placed between the vertebrae to keep the space open and relieve pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.

Recovery & Rehabilitation

Immediate Postoperative Care

  • Hospital Stay: Duration depends on the type of surgery and individual recovery.
  • Pain Management: Medications to control postoperative pain.
  • Activity Restrictions: Limited movement initially, with gradual increase as healing progresses.
  • Physical Therapy: Early mobilization and exercises to restore function and strength.

Long-Term Rehabilitation

  • Physical Therapy: Structured program to improve flexibility, strength, and coordination.
  • Activity Modification: Gradual return to normal activities, avoiding heavy lifting and high-impact activities initially.
  • Follow-Up Care: Regular visits to monitor healing and progress.

Risks & Complications

  • Infection: Risk of infection at the surgical site.
  • Bleeding: Risk of excessive bleeding during or after surgery.
  • Nerve Damage: Potential for nerve injury during surgery.
  • Non-Union or Malunion: Failure of the bones to heal properly if spinal fusion is performed.
  • Implant Failure: Risk of metal hardware loosening or breaking if used.
  • Persistent Symptoms: Symptoms may persist despite surgery.
  • Recurrence of Symptoms: Symptoms may recur if the underlying condition progresses.

Benefits of Treatment

  • Pain Relief: Significant reduction in pain and discomfort.
  • Improved Mobility: Enhanced ability to perform daily activities.
  • Increased Functionality: Improved overall spinal function and quality of life.
  • Prevention of Further Damage: Stabilizing the spine to prevent further injury or deterioration.


What causes spinal stenosis?
Spinal stenosis can be caused by age-related degenerative changes, herniated discs, thickened ligaments, bone spurs, spinal injuries, and congenital conditions.

How is spinal stenosis diagnosed?
Spinal stenosis is diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as MRI, CT scans, and X-rays. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies may also be used.

Can spinal stenosis be treated without surgery?
Yes, conservative treatments such as medications, physical therapy, and activity modification can be effective for managing symptoms. Surgery is considered if conservative treatments fail or if there is significant neurological impairment.

What are the risks of spinal decompression surgery for spinal stenosis?
Risks include infection, bleeding, nerve damage, non-union or malunion of bones, implant failure, persistent symptoms, and recurrence of symptoms.

How long does it take to recover from spinal decompression surgery?
Recovery time varies based on the type of surgery and individual factors. Initial recovery may take several weeks, with full recovery potentially taking several months.

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