Patient Education

To help you understand and navigate through your orthopedic health decisions, we have created a patient education section. Please select from one of the categories below to learn more about your condition or procedure.

Kyphosis is a condition characterized by an abnormally excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing a hunched or rounded back. This curvature can occur in the cervical (neck), thoracic (upper back), or lumbar (lower back) regions of the spine. Here’s an overview of kyphosis, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and more:

Types of Kyphosis

  • Postural Kyphosis: Most common type, often due to poor posture. Typically seen in adolescents and young adults.
  • Scheuermann’s Kyphosis: Develops during adolescence. Results from abnormal growth of vertebrae, causing wedging and increased curvature.
  • Congenital Kyphosis: Present at birth due to abnormal vertebral development, can be associated with other congenital anomalies.
  • Degenerative Kyphosis: Occurs in older adults due to degeneration of discs and vertebrae, often associated with osteoporosis.

Common Symptoms

  • Round Back: Visible rounding of the upper back.
  • Back Pain: Especially in the affected area.
  • Stiffness: Reduced flexibility in the spine.
  • Fatigue: Due to muscle strain from maintaining posture.
  • Rarely, Breathing Difficulties: Severe cases may compress the lungs.


  • Poor Posture: Habitual slouching or sitting improperly.
  • Vertebral Abnormalities: Abnormal vertebrae development (congenital).
  • Osteoporosis: Weakens vertebrae, contributing to curvature (degenerative).
  • Spinal Injuries: Trauma or fractures affecting spinal alignment.
  • Muscle Weakness: Weak back muscles may not support proper posture.


  • Assessment of posture, flexibility, and range of motion.
  • X-rays: To visualize the curvature and assess vertebral alignment.
  • MRI or CT Scan: Sometimes used to evaluate spinal cord or nerve compression.

Non-Surgical Treatment

  • Physical Therapy: Exercises to strengthen back muscles and improve posture. Stretching exercises to increase flexibility.
  • Bracing: For adolescents with moderate to severe kyphosis to help correct posture.
  • Pain Management: NSAIDs or acetaminophen for pain relief. Heat or ice packs for muscle pain.

Surgical Treatments

Spinal Fusion:

  • For severe cases or progressive kyphosis.
  • Involves fusing vertebrae together to stabilize and reduce curvature.

Prevention & Complications

  • Maintain Good Posture: Be mindful of sitting and standing positions.
  • Regular Exercise: Strengthen back and core muscles.
  • Healthy Diet: Ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake for bone health.


  • Chronic Pain: Persistent discomfort in the back or neck.
  • Respiratory Issues: Severe kyphosis may compress the lungs.
  • Psychological Impact: Self-esteem issues due to visible deformity.


Can kyphosis be corrected without surgery?
Yes, mild to moderate cases of kyphosis can often be managed effectively with physical therapy, bracing, and lifestyle modifications.

How can I improve my posture to prevent kyphosis?
Practice good posture habits, including sitting up straight, using ergonomic furniture, and performing exercises that strengthen back muscles.

Is kyphosis more common in certain age groups?
Postural kyphosis is common in adolescents and young adults, while degenerative kyphosis is more prevalent in older adults.

What should I do if I notice changes in my spine curvature?
Consult with a healthcare provider or orthopedic specialist for evaluation and appropriate management options.

Can kyphosis cause long-term complications?
Severe kyphosis may lead to chronic pain, respiratory issues, or psychological concerns due to the visible deformity.

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