Patient Education

To help you understand and navigate through your orthopedic health decisions, we have created a patient education section. Please select from one of the categories below to learn more about your condition or procedure.
Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) is a condition where the intervertebral discs of the spine deteriorate or break down, leading to pain, reduced flexibility, and other symptoms. Despite its name, DDD is not actually a disease but a degenerative condition that can cause significant discomfort and disability.

Common Symptoms

  • Back pain: Chronic or intermittent pain in the back or neck, depending on the location of the affected discs.
  • Pain radiating to extremities: Pain can spread to the arms or legs, commonly known as radiculopathy or sciatica when affecting the lower back.
  • Numbness and tingling: Sensations in the arms or legs.
  • Weakness: In the muscles served by the affected nerves.
  • Reduced flexibility: Stiffness and difficulty bending or twisting.

Cause & Anatomy

  • Aging: Natural wear and tear on the discs over time.
  • Genetics: Family history of DDD can increase risk.
  • Injury: Trauma to the spine can accelerate disc degeneration.
  • Repetitive stress: Repeated activities that stress the spine.
  • Lifestyle factors: Smoking, obesity, and lack of exercise.


  • Intervertebral Discs: Soft, rubbery pads located between each vertebra, acting as shock absorbers and allowing flexibility in the spine.
  • Components:
  • Nucleus Pulposus: Gel-like center providing cushioning.
  • Annulus Fibrosus: Tough outer layer that holds the nucleus in place.


  • Medical history and physical examination: Assessment of symptoms, lifestyle, and family history.
  • Imaging tests:
  • X-rays: To identify disc space narrowing and bone changes.
  • MRI: To visualize disc health and detect herniation, tears, or other abnormalities.
  • CT scan: Detailed images of the spine.
  • Discography: Inserting a dye into the disc to identify pain sources.


  • Healthy lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking.
  • Proper ergonomics: Using supportive furniture and practicing good posture.
  • Avoiding repetitive stress: Reducing activities that put excessive strain on the spine.


  • Medications:
    • NSAIDs: To reduce pain and inflammation.
    • Pain relievers: Over-the-counter or prescription medications.
    • Muscle relaxants: To relieve muscle spasms.
    • Corticosteroid injections: To reduce inflammation around the affected nerves.
  • Physical therapy: Exercises to strengthen the back and core muscles, improve flexibility, and alleviate pain.
  • Lifestyle modifications: Weight management, smoking cessation, and ergonomic adjustments to reduce stress on the spine.
  • Alternative therapies: Chiropractic care, acupuncture, and massage therapy for pain relief.


  • Discectomy: Removal of part or all of the damaged disc.
  • Spinal fusion: Fusing two or more vertebrae to stabilize the spine.
  • Artificial disc replacement: Replacing the damaged disc with an artificial one to maintain motion.
  • Laminectomy: Removing part of the vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.



  • Chronic pain: Persistent pain despite treatment.
  • Nerve damage: From pressure or injury to the nerves.
  • Reduced mobility: Ongoing stiffness and loss of flexibility.
  • Adjacent segment disease: Increased stress on adjacent discs leading to further degeneration.


  • Variable: Depending on the severity of degeneration, the effectiveness of treatment, and adherence to lifestyle changes.
  • Management: Many people with DDD can manage symptoms effectively with a combination of treatments.


Is degenerative disc disease a normal part of aging?
Yes, disc degeneration is a common part of the aging process, but not everyone will experience pain or significant symptoms.

Can degenerative disc disease be cured?
There is no cure for DDD, but symptoms can be managed effectively with a combination of treatments.

What activities should be avoided with degenerative disc disease?
Activities that put excessive strain on the spine, such as heavy lifting, high-impact sports, and repetitive twisting, should be avoided or modified.

How does physical therapy help with degenerative disc disease?
Physical therapy can strengthen the muscles supporting the spine, improve flexibility, reduce pain, and prevent further injury.

When is surgery considered for degenerative disc disease?
Surgery is considered when conservative treatments fail to relieve symptoms, and there is significant pain, nerve damage, or functional impairment.

Can lifestyle changes really make a difference in managing degenerative disc disease?
Yes, lifestyle changes such as weight management, regular exercise, and ergonomic adjustments can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life.

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