Patient Education

To help you understand and navigate through your orthopedic health decisions, we have created a patient education section. Please select from one of the categories below to learn more about your condition or procedure.
Spinal Decompression Surgery

Spinal decompression surgery is a procedure aimed at relieving pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative disc disease. The surgery involves removing part of the bone, disc, or other structures that are compressing the nerves.


Spinal decompression surgery is typically recommended for patients with:

  • Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal that compresses the spinal cord or nerve roots.
  • Herniated Disc: A bulging or ruptured disc that presses on the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Degenerative Disc Disease: Wear and tear on spinal discs causing nerve compression.
  • Bone Spurs: Bony growths that pinch the nerves.
  • Spondylolisthesis: A condition where one vertebra slips over another, compressing the nerves.
  • Tumors: Growths that press on the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Injury: Trauma that results in spinal cord or nerve compression.

Types of Spinal Decompression Surgery


  • Removal of the lamina (part of the vertebra) to create more space and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Commonly performed for spinal stenosis.


  • Removal of part or all of a herniated disc that is pressing on the nerve roots or spinal cord.
  • Can be done as a microdiscectomy, a minimally invasive procedure using a microscope.


  • Enlargement of the foramen (the opening through which nerve roots exit the spine) to relieve nerve compression.
  • Often combined with other decompression procedures.


  • Removal of part of the vertebral body and adjacent discs to decompress the spinal cord.
  • Typically used for more extensive decompression needs, such as in cases of spinal tumors or severe fractures.

Spinal Fusion:

  • Often performed in conjunction with decompression to stabilize the spine.
  • Involves fusing two or more vertebrae together using bone grafts, rods, and screws.


Preoperative Preparation:

  • Medical evaluation and imaging tests (X-rays, MRI, CT scan) to assess the condition.
  • Discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives with the surgeon.


  • General anesthesia is administered to ensure the patient is unconscious and pain-free during the procedure.

Surgical Approach:

  • The patient is positioned to provide the best access to the affected area of the spine.
  • An incision is made over the targeted area.


  • The surgeon removes or trims the structures causing compression (e.g., bone, disc material).
  • Additional procedures, such as spinal fusion, may be performed if necessary.


  • The incision is closed with sutures or staples, and a sterile dressing is applied.

Recovery & Rehabilitaion

Immediate Postoperative Care

  • Hospital Stay: Duration depends on the type of surgery and individual recovery. It can range from a few days to a week.
  • Pain Management: Medications to control postoperative pain.
  • Activity Restrictions: Limited movement initially, with gradual increase as healing progresses.
  • Physical Therapy: Early mobilization and exercises to restore function and strength.

Long-Term Rehabilitation

  • Physical Therapy: A structured program to improve flexibility, strength, and posture.
  • Activity Modification: Gradual return to normal activities, avoiding heavy lifting and high-impact activities initially.
  • Follow-Up Care: Regular visits to monitor healing and progress.

Risks & Complications

  • Infection: Risk of infection at the surgical site.
  • Bleeding: Risk of excessive bleeding during or after surgery.
  • Nerve Damage: Potential for nerve injury during surgery.
  • Non-Union or Malunion: Failure of the bones to heal properly if spinal fusion is performed.
  • Implant Failure: Risk of metal hardware loosening or breaking if used.
  • Persistent Pain: Pain that continues despite surgery.
  • Recurrence of Symptoms: Symptoms may recur if the underlying condition progresses.


  • Pain Relief: Significant reduction or elimination of pain.
  • Improved Mobility: Enhanced ability to perform daily activities.
  • Increased Functionality: Improved overall spinal function and quality of life.
  • Prevention of Further Damage: Stabilizing the spine to prevent further injury or deterioration.


How long does it take to recover from spinal decompression surgery?
Recovery time varies based on the type of surgery and individual factors. Initial recovery may take several weeks, with full recovery potentially taking several months.

Will I need physical therapy after spinal decompression surgery?
Yes, physical therapy is crucial for regaining strength, flexibility, and function.

Are there any activities I should avoid after spinal decompression surgery?
High-impact activities, heavy lifting, and activities that involve twisting or bending the spine should be avoided initially. Your surgeon will provide specific guidelines.

How effective is spinal decompression surgery?
Spinal decompression surgery can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving function. Outcomes depend on the severity of the condition and adherence to postoperative care and rehabilitation.

Can spinal decompression surgery be performed minimally invasively?
Yes, certain types of decompression procedures, such as microdiscectomy, can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, which may result in shorter recovery times and less postoperative pain.

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