Patient Education

To help you understand and navigate through your orthopedic health decisions, we have created a patient education section. Please select from one of the categories below to learn more about your condition or procedure.
Female Athletes Health Problems

Extreme exercise and dieting can lead to several health problems in female athletes. These issues can affect physical and mental health and often result from the pressure to maintain a certain body image, achieve peak performance, or meet sport-specific body requirements.

Common Symptoms

1. Female Athlete Triad

  • Energy Deficiency: Inadequate caloric intake relative to energy expenditure.
  • Menstrual Dysfunction: Irregular or absent menstrual periods (amenorrhea).
  • Bone Health Issues: Decreased bone density leading to osteoporosis or stress fractures.

2. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)

  • A broader syndrome than the Female Athlete Triad, affecting metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health.

3. Eating Disorders

  • Anorexia Nervosa: Severe restriction of food intake leading to significant weight loss.
  • Bulimia Nervosa: Binge eating followed by purging.
  • Binge Eating Disorder: Consuming large quantities of food in a short period without purging.

4. Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • Increased risk of stress fractures, tendinitis, and other overuse injuries due to inadequate nutrition and overtraining.

5. Hormonal Imbalances

  • Disruption in hormone levels affecting reproductive and overall health.

6. Cardiovascular Issues

  • Potential for decreased heart function and risk of cardiovascular disease due to extreme dietary restrictions and intense exercise.

7. Gastrointestinal Problems

  • Issues such as constipation, bloating, and abdominal pain due to poor nutrition and disordered eating habits.

8. Mental Health Issues

  • Depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem related to body image and performance pressures.


  • Societal and Sport-Specific Pressures: Pressure to maintain a lean physique or specific body weight for competitive advantage.
  • Cultural Expectations: Emphasis on thinness and ideal body image.
  • Lack of Education: Inadequate understanding of proper nutrition and the consequences of extreme exercise and dieting.
  • Coaching Practices: Encouragement or acceptance of unhealthy behaviors by coaches or trainers.


  • Medical History and Physical Examination: Assessing symptoms, diet, exercise habits, and menstrual history.
  • Bone Density Tests: To check for osteoporosis or low bone density.
  • Blood Tests: To evaluate hormone levels, nutritional deficiencies, and overall health.
  • Psychological Evaluation: Screening for eating disorders and mental health issues.


  • Promoting Healthy Body Image: Encouraging a positive body image and focusing on overall health and performance rather than weight or appearance.
  • Proper Nutrition: Educating athletes on the importance of balanced nutrition and adequate caloric intake.
  • Regular Health Screenings: Routine check-ups to monitor health, including bone density and hormonal levels.
  • Creating a Supportive Environment: Ensuring coaches and trainers foster a healthy and supportive environment for female athletes.

Treatment & Management

Medical Intervention

  • Nutritional Counseling: Working with a dietitian to develop a balanced eating plan that meets energy needs.
  • Hormonal Therapy: Addressing menstrual dysfunction and bone health.
  • Medications: Treating specific deficiencies or health issues (e.g., calcium, vitamin D, or iron supplements).

Psychological Support

  • Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or other forms of counseling to address body image issues, eating disorders, and mental health problems.
  • Support Groups: Providing a community and support system for those experiencing similar issues.

Training Modifications

  • Balanced Training Regimen: Ensuring proper rest and recovery periods, and avoiding overtraining.
  • Education: Educating athletes, coaches, and parents about the risks of extreme exercise and dieting and promoting healthy behaviors.


What is the Female Athlete Triad?
The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome consisting of energy deficiency, menstrual dysfunction, and decreased bone density.

How can I tell if I’m at risk for health problems related to extreme exercise and dieting?
Symptoms like irregular or absent menstrual periods, frequent injuries, fatigue, and significant weight loss may indicate a risk. Consult with a healthcare professional if you have concerns.

Can these health problems be reversed?
Many health problems can be managed or reversed with proper medical treatment, nutritional counseling, and psychological support.

How much exercise is too much?
Excessive exercise is relative and depends on the individual’s health, nutrition, and overall lifestyle. It’s important to balance exercise with adequate rest and nutrition. Consulting with a healthcare professional can help determine a healthy exercise regimen.

How can I maintain a healthy diet as an athlete?
A balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrients, sufficient caloric intake, and hydration is essential. Working with a dietitian can provide personalized guidance.

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